Kate commitments, introduced by Aniket Kate, Gregory M. Zaverucha, and Ian Goldberg in 2010, provided a way to commit to polynomials in a succinct manner. Recently, polynomial commitments came to the forefront, being used primarily as vector commitments in PLONK like ZK constructions.


In our construction, we use Kate's commitments due to the following features:

  • It allows us to commit to values in a succinct manner to be kept inside the block header.

  • Short openings are possible which helps a light client verify availability.

  • The cryptographic binding property helps us avoid fraud proofs by making it computationally infeasible to produce wrong commitments.